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Citation Styles

APA (named for the American Psychological Association) style is used for social sciences like:

  • Business
  • Education
  • Sociology
  • Pyschology

NOTE: St. Joseph's Professional Studies department uses this style.

APA Style Manual

APA Style Paper

Citations within Quotations

Sometimes when you are quoting from another source, the text you want to quote will include citations.  How do you cite it?

Citations within Citations

APA Style Central


Reference List

Watch this tutorial and learn how to write a References section, including how to ensure entries are accurate, complete, consistently styled, and up to date.

Tutorial - How to Cite in APA

Book Reference

Watch this tutorial, and learn how to format references for whole books, including both authored books and edited books.

Journal Article Reference

Watch this tutorial and learn how to format references for journal articles, including those published in print, online, or retrieved from research databases.


© 2016 American Psychological Association.

Citing Websites

Website Reference

Learn how to format references for any material found on websites, including lecture notes or PowerPoint slides.

APA Style Annotated Bibliography

Creating an annotated bibliography in APA style

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th edition (APA Manual) is kept in the Reference Collection on the First Floor (see above for Call Number).

This example is based on the APA style guide, but your instructor might give you other formatting instructions

General guidelines

  • Some annotations are merely descriptive, summarizing the authors' qualifications, research methods, and arguments. 
  • Many annotations evaluate the quality of scholarship in a book or article.  You might want to consider the logic of authors' arguments, and the quality of their evidence.  Your findings can be positive, negative, or mixed.
  • Your professor might also want you to explain why the source is relevant to your assignment. 

Sample Page: APA-formatted annotated bibliography:

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Use NoodleTools to create your References, Works Cited, or Bibliography page in APA, MLA or Chicago/Turabian format.

Inserting Header & Page Number

Notice that the term "Running head" only appears in the header section of the cover page in the APA style paper.  Watch the video tutorial and learn how!

In-Text Citation

“A brief reference (consisting of the author’s last name, year of publication, and frequently a page number), to a source within the body of a scholarly work that will be more fully described in the references section.”

Every cited reference must have a corresponding entry in the reference list.

Citing References in Text

Learn how to cite references in the text, including how to implement the basic formats, cite multiple works, achieve clarity, and format references with missing author and/or date information.


© 2016 American Psychological Association.